ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 43-49

Pre-emptive intravenous ketorolac analgesia does not alter the risk of bleeding after tonsillectomy in children


1 Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; King Abdulaziz Naval Base Hospital, Jubail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Egypt
2 Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
3 Department of ENT, Faculty of Medicine, Alazhar University, Demiatte, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Hesham F Soliman
Alnoor Specialist Hospital, PO Box 6251, Makkah 21955
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1687-7934.153937

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Background NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and prolong bleeding time, which may augment the risk of postoperative bleeding. We investigated the effects of pre-emptive analgesia with intravenous ketorolac on intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage with pediatric tonsillectomy. Patients and Methods A total of 147 children, aged 2-7 years, scheduled for tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy were randomized to receive a slow intravenous infusion of either ketorolac 1 mg/kg (ketorolac group, n = 74) or paracetamol 15 mg/kg (paracetamol group, n = 73) after induction of anesthesia. Noninvasive hemoglobin was assessed preoperatively and several times after surgery. Bleeding times were measured before and after surgery. Intraoperative blood loss was estimated. Intensity of postoperative pain was measured using an objective pain score. The incidence and severity of post-tonsillectomy bleeding were recorded until the seventh postoperative day. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the estimated intraoperative blood loss between ketorolac and paracetamol groups (2.4 ± 1.1 vs. 2.1 ± 0.8 ml/kg, respectively; P = 0.061). Bleeding time increased between preoperative and postoperative assessments in both groups, with significant postoperative elevation in the ketorolac group (P = 0.001). Both groups were comparable regarding the perioperative noninvasive hemoglobin measurements. The overall incidence of post-tonsillectomy bleeding was 5.4%, with no statistically significant difference between ketorolac and paracetamol groups [5 (6.75%) vs. 3 (4.1%) patients, respectively; P = 0.705]. Postoperative objective pain score were significantly lower in the ketorolac group on postanesthesia care unit admission and at 1, 2, and 6 postoperative hours (P < 0.05). Conclusion Pre-emptive ketorolac infusion during pediatric tonsillectomy provides superior postoperative analgesia with no effect on intraoperative or postoperative clinical bleeding.


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