ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 493-500

Comparison of caudal epidural clonidine with fentanyl as an adjuvant to ropivacaine 0.25% for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing various infraumbilical surgeries: A prospective randomized study


Department of Anaesthesiology, JLN Medical College and Hospital, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Sudheendra Saini
Department of Anaesthesiology, JLN Medical College and Hospital, Ajmer, Rajasthan, 305001
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1687-7934.198252

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Background Caudal epidural block is commonly used as a safe, reliable, easy-to-administer technique for abdominal and lower limb surgeries in pediatric patients and allows rapid recovery from anesthesia with effective postoperative analgesia. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy of clonidine versus fentanyl when used as an additive to ropivacaine during single-shot caudal epidural analgesia in pediatric patients for postoperative pain relief. Patients and methods This randomized prospective double-blind study was conducted on 60 children of American Society of Anesthesiologists grades I and II aged 1–7 years scheduled for various infraumbilical surgical procedures who were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either ropivacaine (0.25%, 1 ml/kg) and clonidine (2 μg/kg) (group RC) or ropivacaine (0.25%, 1 ml/kg) and fentanyl (1 μg/kg) (group RF). Caudal epidural block was performed after induction of general anesthesia. Postoperatively, patients were observed for duration of analgesia, sedation score, recovery time, hemodynamics, and side effects or complications. Results Both groups were similar with respect to patient’s demographic profile, baseline hemodynamic parameters, and duration of surgery. The analgesic properties and hemodynamics were also comparable in both groups (P>0.05). The mean recovery time and sedation score were significantly lower in group RC as compared with group RF (P<0.05). Side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and respiratory depression were seen only in group RF. Conclusion From our study we concluded that both clonidine (2 μg/kg) and fentanyl (1 μg/kg) can be used as an adjuvant to single-shot caudal epidural anesthesia using 0.25% ropivacaine for effective postoperative analgesia in children. Because of its more favorable side-effect profile, with less respiratory depression, nausea, vomiting, and more patient comfort, clonidine is a better choice for use as an adjuvant to caudal epidural anesthesia in children.


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